The effects of a dispute resolution clause are also being discussed. The arbitration tribunals either rejected the jurisdiction, 36 went into the case37, or stopped the proceedings until the decision of the contractual forum.38 See also contractual rights/contractual rights. In Noble Ventures in Romania3, the Tribunal examined the scope and application of the framework clause of the Bilateral Investment Contract (ILO) between the United States of America and Romania. The text of the clause reads: “Each party respects all the investment commitments it has made.” The applicant asserted that Romania had breached safeguard clause 4 by not breaching its contractual obligation not to comply with the debts of a state-owned company that the investor received. The Tribunal found that the offences committed at the communal level were the cause of a breach of the investment contract between the States and justified the international responsibility of the host Member State5. Brazil and Mozambique signed the first Cooperation and Investment Facilitation Agreement (CIFA) on 30 March 2015 on the basis of Brazil`s new Model Of Bilateral Investment Agreement (ILO). The second was signed on April 1, 2015 between Brazil and Angola. Unlike traditional ILOs, which aim to protect investors, CIFAs focus primarily on cooperation and investment facilitation. They promote consensual channels of dispute resolution and propose, as a safeguard, a settlement of state disputes; in particular, they do not contain provisions relating to investor-state arbitration. Umbrella clauses raise the question of applicable law: carved in the 1950s, In order to improve the protection of investor-state contracts1, the safeguard clauses provide that host Member States “respect” (or .
B “respect,” “execution,” “execution” or “respect” (or by. For example, “commitments” or “commitments”) they have made with regard to investments (or, for example. B, “accepted” or “assumed”). Umbrella clauses apply only to companies in the host Member State and not to companies of foreign investors2. Lemaire, S., The Mysterious `Umbrella Clause` (questions on the impact of the compliance clause on investment arbitration), Arbitration Review, 2009, p. 479-502. In December 2015, I published an article examining the existence of a trend towards the removal of the framework clauses of investment agreements, whether bilateral, multilateral or model. At that time, the bilateral investment agreements (ILOs) of the United States, France, Canada, Colombia and the Southern African Development Community (CDAA), as well as many important multilateral investment agreements, including NAFTA and the ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement, contained no safeguard clauses. The position against the umbrella clauses was clear. Furthermore, in eureko in Poland7, the Tribunal found that Poland was in breach of the ILO safeguard clause, which provides for the obligation to comply with possible obligations with respect to the applicant`s investments, even though other standards of the bit signed between the Netherlands and Poland were not violated8. As a result, the courts, which were worth the full effect of the safeguard clauses, had degenerated the scope of the infringement in violation of the investment contract9. Umbrella clauses are an enforcement mechanism, but do not internationalize the contracts and unilateral obligations of the host state11 According to this interpretation, The Umbrella clauses essentially have a jurisdictional function.12 There is a near-consensus on this interpretation.