Withdrawal Agreement 25 November 2018

If the EP approves the agreement by a simple majority, it will have to be adopted by the EU by the overqualified majority of the European Council of the remaining 27 Member States (20 from the other EU-27 representing 65% of the EU-27 population). The current EU VAT regime applies to goods shipped or transported from the UK to an EU Member State or, conversely, when shipping or transport began before the end of the transitional period and were subsequently discontinued. Unless the future relationship agreement is made, goods exported after the end of the UK`s passage to the EU and vice versa will be subject to VAT and customs formalities. For fuels, alcohol and tobacco products, equivalent provisions are provided by the EU excise system. After the transition, exports of consumables from the UK to the EU are subject to customs procedures before they can be relocated within the EU. To meet these requirements, the Uk can access relevant networks and databases. The Heads of State and Government also approved the political declaration on the future relationship between the EU and the UNITED Kingdom, which is accompanied and mentioned in the withdrawal agreement. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political declaration and replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, a trade fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms. [27] In addition, the Equal Competition Mechanism has been postponed from the legally binding withdrawal agreement to the political declaration,[24] and the line of the political statement that “the United Kingdom will consider taking into account alignment with trade union rules in the relevant areas” has been removed. [26] Mrs May appealed to the public to position herself behind the agreement and said that, although it was a compromise, it was a “good deal that opens up a bright future for the United Kingdom.” Under the backstop, the UK will form a customs union with the EU (with the exception of trade in fisheries and aquaculture products, which is expected to be the subject of a new agreement on fishing opportunities by 1 July 2020). The UK will comply with specific EU customs legislation, including for third countries, and some harmonisation of tax, environmental, labour law, state aid, competition and public enterprise/monopoly legislation will continue, but without any obligation to follow the new EU legislation and ECJ jurisprudence.

In order to create a level playing field, the UK is committed not to competitiveise EU environmental protection, social and labour standards, state aid and competition, as well as state-owned enterprises in tax management. This document shortens the withdrawal agreement negotiated by EU heads of state and government on 25 November 2018 (newly published by the UK government in March 2019) and shortens the political declaration (re-published by the government in March 2019) that sets the framework for future EU-UK relations is abbreviated in the 19th.

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